Swavesey and District
Reports on the Swavesey and District History Society monthly meetings
May 2018 meeting. The original full title of Fulbourn Asylum was The Pauper Lunatic Asylum for the County and Borough of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. Around 45 members attended a presentation by David Edwards from Doddington who first became interested in the hospital when researching a side-
The foundation stone for the asylum was laid by the Earl of Hardwick in 1856 and it was opened in late 1858 to hold 250 inmates. The site gradually expanded to 750 inmates by the 1930s and whereas the hospital is still open today, the asylum block closed in 1992.
There is vast documentation in the archives giving very full details including names, addresses, age, occupation, when admitted, why admitted, removals, discharges and deaths. In 1899 Jane Giddings from Waterbeach, married, 40 years old and with suicidal tendencies was admitted for threatening to murder her husband and imagining her neighbours were in a conspiracy against her. Post mortems were always done on inmates who died at the asylum and in 1863 the Cambridge School of Anatomy obtained permission to receive unclaimed bodies and by 1901 sixty seven bodies had been supplied for research. In 1865 Robert Beaumont of Swavesey was convicted of assaulting his mother but after only one month in prison he was declared insane and spent the rest of his life in the asylum where he died in 1892 with his body being sent to the Anatomy School. The asylum received payment for each body supplied.
In 1890 when there were 450 patients there were 12 male attendants and 24 female attendants. James Martin started working there as an attendant in 1871 but he became lunatic by 1885 and was transferred to Nottingham Lunatic Asylum. Other notable events in the history of the site were the first suicide by razor in 1861, in 1875 it became famous because a twelve year old boy died while cleaning a chimney there, in 1881 George Taylor was killed by a fellow inmate and in 1884 a patient was tried for arson.
April 2018 meeting. Around 45 members attended a talk entitled “Best Foot Forward” by Ian Waller from Luton who had several ancestors in the Rushden area of Northamptonshire who were shoemakers. Most villages, including Over and Swavesey, had a shoemaker until the recent past and since they also repaired shoes they were known as cobblers. Many also repaired harnesses and saddles because they worked with leather. There was little profit in the trade however and most had a second job. A maker of shoes, as opposed to a repairer, was also known as a cordwainer which comes from cordovan, a reddish-
The Romans introduced sandals which gradually replaced the moccasins worn previously in this country. More recently, people in rural communities wore clogs which had a wooden sole with a leather upper. Subsequently hobnail boots were found more durable and replaced the clogs. Local, small-
In the middle ages most shoemakers learned the trade as an apprentice with apprenticeships existing from around 1250 and they lasted for 7 years. Still today boots and shoes are amongst the most complicated items of apparel to make. The modern shoelace was invented in England on 27 March 1790 – until then shoes were fastened with buckles.
March 2018 meeting. John Alldritt from Over has an unusual surname with fewer than 100 Alldritts currently registered in Britain and he told us about the origin of English surnames. Some are obvious such as Carter, Cooper and Archer whereas some are misleading such as Bowman which comes from a tool used for straightening wool. Farmer is not what we would expect since it comes originally from “firmer” -
Saxon names had one word such as Cuthbert and Ailfred and it was the Normans, soon after 1066, who introduced the system of first name and surname although it took until the mid-
February 2018 meeting. We had an exceptionally good talk on “The History of Cambridge in ONE Hole”, by Alison Dickens of Cambridge University Archaeologists Dept (CUAD), where all who attended were intrigued by the Talk’s title, what did it mean?
It transpires that Cambridge City Council had to dig fifteen 3 metre by 12 metre deep wide holes around Chesterton and Madingley roads, in order to check out the sewers condition in preparation to add more buildings on Madingley road. As is normal with new buildings, if anyone digs down it has to be excavated and when CUAD had dug through 14 holes and found nothing they were disheartened, but when they dug in the 15th hole at Chesterton lane it was a very different story!
As they dug down and got rid of the modern top layer they came to the first medieval level and found a small amount of items, but when they cleaned up to the 3 metre concrete edge they struck lucky and out fell nearly 1900 coins! These were mostly silver pennies but some gold coins too and thankfully these are now on display at the Fitzwilliam Museum. The next layer down was the Saxon period and here they found a grave with body remains, but unfortunately the skulls were displaced and when CUAD did x-
The final layer was the Roman layer where they found the edge of a Roman road and pottery artefacts, and on investigation found that the road lined up nearly exactly with Castle Hill and the road to Huntingdon, she said this obviously was the old Roman Road and amazingly still in line after well over 1000 years!
She went on to show some early photos of Castle street crossroads and we saw how much narrower it was, and how in 1911 they took down a set of shops to widen Northampton street and Chesterton lane for the new motorcar! She concluded by displaying photos of the monument pole and plaque that were erected on the corner of the path of Castle Hill crossroads, which shows the four dig levels on the pole and a worthy description of what was found on the plaque wall. She went on to say that this ONE hole produced an amazing amount of findings and the CUAD team were ecstatic.
January 2018 meeting. In St Martin’s Place, just outside the north-
She was born in 1865 in Swardeston, near Norwich where her father was vicar for 45 years. After leaving school she was a governess for several families until the age of 30 both in the UK and, from 1890 to ’95, in Belgium. In 1895 she returned to care for her father during a serious illness and on his recovery she applied to become a nurse probationer at the London Hospital. In 1907, Cavell was recruited by Dr Antoine Depage to be matron of a newly established nurse training school in Belgium. In July 1914 she returned to her mother for her annual holiday but when German troops invaded Belgium in August she willingly went back to Belgium.
Edith cared for all the wounded, regardless of nationality. However, she soon began to work with others to smuggle the Allied soldiers under her care, out of the hospital and across the border to neutral Holland which was easy to achieve in the early days. The group also assisted Belgian and French civilians of military age to get to countries where they could join up against the Germans. Edith had close contact with Prince Réginald de Croy at his château near Mons, a patriot who provided them with false papers and money. Another in the group, Philippe Baucq, provided them with guides. This placed Cavell in violation of German military law.
She was arrested on 3 August 1915 and held in Saint-
Edith was shot for treason, not for spying as often claimed, at 7:00 am on 12 October 1915. Belgian women immediately buried her body next to Saint-
December 2017 meeting. Thirty two members turned out for the Society’s AGM on a very cold evening with slippery road conditions following recent snowfall. After the formal proceedings four local speakers gave short presentations.
Garry Warrington (Over). From the 1870s the Fenland Skating Society organised annual competitions for its many members and visitors, with the administration being centred at Over in recent decades. Skating was done locally on Mare Fen to the north of the road between Swavesey and Over but the favourite site was at Bury Fen near Earith. One event took place on frozen settling ponds at Milton sewage works, becoming smelly as the ice melted. Examples of different types of skates were on display along with skating course designs and early photographs.
Noreen Morgan (Swavesey) recently discovered many documents and photographs about her grandparents. Her grandmother was a prison warder at Holloway Prison from 1913, during the time of the Suffragettes. Her grandfather who was a career soldier in the Royal Hussars was injured in World War I, although the nature of his injury is not yet discovered. He survived and subsequently worked for the Eaden Lilley high class store in Cambridge, with the family living in a house owned by Eaden Lilley. Some photographs were shown but more remain to be processed.
Eileen Webster (Over) reported on continued research into her early relatives of the Bicheno family, going back to her 7th generation of grandparents in the 1500s and 1600s. Links with the university and Civil War support for the King but also favouring of the Quaker religion were discovered along with one family member being Mayor of Cambridge. At one time senior positions were held in the government of Hobart in Tasmania and eventually family members became printers and bookbinders in the area of the University Bookshop opposite the Senate Building in Cambridge.
Selwyn (Swavesey) spoke on cereal harvest in the Fens in years gone by. The sequence of events from cutting the crop with a tractor-
After the speakers a light buffet, including mulled apple juice, was kindly provided by the Committee Members.
November 2017 meeting. Anthony Haskins of Oxford Archaeology East gave a talk to a large audience on The Great Fen Spitfire. In the afternoon of 22 November 1940 Pilot Officer Harold Penketh of 266 Squadron, based at RAF Wittering, climbed high on a training flight to 28,000 feet with two colleagues beside him. He was seen to break formation, entering a dive from which he failed to fully recover. Witnesses stated that his aircraft partially recovered at around 2000 feet but immediately re-
A geophysical survey pinpointed where the plane crashed and located the Merlin engine at 2 to 3 metres below the surface. Remains of the Spitfire, including the engine block and parts of the cockpit were found in-
Within days of the excavation finishing The Great Fen Heritage Group began the process of washing pieces of airframe and other finds. Over a nine-
October 2017 meeting. Nearly sixty people attended to hear Eddy Edwards from Welney give a thoroughly well-
About three quarters of a mile south of Sutton Gault there are three vertical concrete slabs, each around three feet tall, standing in line adjacent to the Old Bedford River.They were erected in 1972 and are almost all that is left of an elevated concrete "guideway" track planned to run between Earith and Sutton Gault and on which a hovertrain was to be tested. Cambridgeshire County Council erected an information board nearby a few years ago which has some information about the hovertrain experiments.
The principle was that a cushion of air would suspend the train above the track as already used in hovercraft on the sea.It was propelled by a linear electric motor with no moving parts and using a trackside electrical supply with no overhead wires.The developers, Tracked Hovercraft Ltd, (THL), a subsidiary of the government agency the National Research Development Corporation (NRDC), predicted that the journey from London to Birmingham would take around 20 minutes and London to Edinburgh about 90 minutes since it would travel at around 240 to 300 miles per hour.
A site was sought where a dead-
In January 1973 the hovertrain achieved 107 mph but in the next month, February 1973, the project was abandoned, partly due to insufficient government funding and partly because British Rail seemed to be making good progress with their Advanced Passenger Train (APT) which tilted on corners for extra speed. Additionally BR had the advantage of already established infrastructure including tracks and a large passenger base.The APT project also failed within a few years.
September 2017 meeting. The new season opened with a room packed full of members and visitors eager to hear Swavesey resident, Selwyn, give a talk on Fenland Farming 60 or 70 years ago, illustrated by around 60 slides from the time. In the fens to the north west of Downham Market in Norfolk was a large farm built in 1847 which was compulsorily purchased from the lord of the manor by Norfolk County Council in 1919. His father was one of six smallholders sharing the extensive farm buildings and the surrounding highly productive fenland. The land in this part of the fens lies at 2 metres below mean sea level and is kept drained by powerful pumps at Wiggenhall St. Germans, south of Kings Lynn, which lift the low level water up into the river Great Ouse.
The main crops grown were potatoes and sugar beet, with a small area of strawberries on almost every smallholding throughout the parish and often a few acres of onions or peas. Cereals were grown, almost reluctantly, to preserve the crop rotation. Almost all farms kept chickens because the weekly income from eggs was conveniently paid in cash and most kept pigs, with the occasional house cow to provide milk, butter and cream.
Potato picking was a very labour intensive job at that time since it was all done by hand. Most of the work was done by women because the farmer paid a woman a lower wage than a man for doing the same job. However, strawberry picking was done by piecework which meant that the picker was paid per pound weight picked. Many of the women were faster pickers than the men and easily earned enough to pay for a new washing machine, refrigerator or a family holiday in a caravan at Hunstanton.
Sugar beet growing also involved much hand labour since soon after emergence the crop had to be chopped out by hoe and singled by hand then later the weeds within the rows were removed by more hoeing because there were few herbicides available. At harvest, after the beet were mechanically squeezed out of the ground from underneath, they were pulled up by hand and knocked together to remove soil then topped by hand and loaded up onto carts. Heaps of beet were usually made along the roadside ready to be loaded by hand into a lorry for transport to the factory at Wissington. At cereal harvest, and particularly when threshing corn stacks, farmers worked together in gangs as they moved around each farm. It was not unusual to have ten men working in dusty conditions on the stacks and around the threshing tackle.
Tools on display included a seed potato tray, potato picking basket, potato ladle (fork), potato sack with sack-
June 2017 meeting. The booked speaker reported at a late stage that she was unable to attend so Carole Pook, the Society’s Chairman, checked her extensive repertoire of presentations and delivered a fascinating talk on witchcraft, persecution and the Pendle Witches.
Before about 1600 when the country was under Catholic rule witchcraft was not illegal in England. Certainly there was a recognised wise woman in most villages who acted as midwife, nurse and apothecary using herbs to cure illnesses and injuries. Although these women were often believed to have magical powers similar to witches they were accepted in society and even Edward IV’s Queen Elizabeth Woodville in the second half of the 15th century was regarded as a witch. With the Reformation, the Protestants took a different view and when James I came to the throne the law changed since he was convinced that witchcraft was evil. The King James Bible says “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live”. Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson wrote plays about witchcraft and Shakespeare wrote Macbeth in 1606 probably to please James I. Witches were nearly always women and it was considered that women living on their own were more likely to be witches because they were outside any man’s control. From around 1600 to about 1750 a witchcraft craze engulfed Europe with thousands executed. In England around 500 witches were put to death over this period but the persecution was much more vigorous throughout Europe.
In 1612 in a remote part of north-
One day in March 1612 Alizon, one of the young Demdikes met John Law, a pedlar, and asked him for some pins. Law refused and they parted but as she looked back Alizon saw Law stumble and apparently become instantly lame. Seeing the chance of some prestige in being regarded as a powerful witch Alizon confessed that she caused the injury. Within days the local JP summoned 3 of the Demdikes who quickly accused the Chattox family of even more serious crimes linked to witchcraft. Three days later two Chattox members and one Demdike were summoned by the J.P. The situation very rapidly deteriorated, culminating in one of the most famous witch trials in England which took place at Lancashire Assizes on 18/19 August 1612 when 19 people went on trial en masse. Ten were from the group of twelve known as the Pendle Witches. By now the Pendle Witches were charged with the murders of ten people by the use of witchcraft. Of the ten -
May 2017 meeting. Since everyone likes maps, close on 70 members attended a presentation on 100 years of maps and surveys by Liz Carter, an experienced AEA speaker from Upton, near Alconbury. Liz detailed the history of survey maps. Originally they were ordinance maps for military use and these were the bases for the 1910 Ordnance Survey maps. Liz demonstrated several sites of these surveys, beginning with mapco.net which is an excellent free-
The National Farm Survey, carried out between 1940 and 1943, was part of the Dig for Victory campaign to increase food production and is a map-
The 1910 Finance Act lead to what was unofficially known as the Second Domesday Survey because of the impressive detail it provided for every property, including factories, schools, pubs etc. and even derelict land in E, S and W. This survey was used for tax purposes and we were shown hand coloured charts with letters used to denote buildings with their precise description in a code, e.g. house B&T meaning a house made of brick and tile with numbers used as reference to all areas of land, large and small. These maps are available to view at the local county archives office. Surveyors visited a site to take detailed descriptions of all buildings and measure land after which an appropriate rate of tax was realised.
Other sources of maps and surveys were briefly outlined; thus the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act lead to production of a map-
April 2017 meeting. Around 45 members attended a presentation by David Edwards from Doddington, between Chatteris and March, entitled “In a Fen Country Churchyard”.
Illustrated by pictures of dozens of gravestones throughout the Cambridgeshire fens, David drew attention to the fascinating amount of information that can be found in their inscriptions which is typically much more interesting than can be found in historical records. Doddington churchyard includes several examples of gravestones from the 1700’s. Conversely, whereas the churchyard in March contained around 1,000 in the early 1900's it was cleared of headstones in the 1960's and now resembles a bowling green with only 150 remaining stacked around the perimeter walls.
Many other churchyards in the fens have been cleared of gravestones. The decoration styles were highlighted with the oldest still standing being from the mid-
Occupations can be deduced from some decorations: one showing sheaves of corn and carrots was the grave of a farmer and that of a blacksmith showed a horseshoe and a pair of pliers. A gravestone from 1852 in March looks almost brand new with its deep and very clear inscription because it is made of black slate and is the grave of a stonemason. Several gravestones throughout the fens nearly provide a life history with details of where born, worked, travelled to, exploits and adventures, occupations and place of death. Many military graves from the 1800's contain much information about the soldier’s military campaigns with Waterloo, The Crimea, Sudan and South Africa mentioned on several. Another lists details of 3 brothers who died in WW1 over a two year period.
Accidental death is recorded on many graves, particularly “run over by railway engine” in the March area because of the busy marshalling yards nearby. One gentleman survived falling in front of a train in 1922 but was killed the second time when he fell in front of a train in 1929. Run over by tram, shot by own gun, kicked by own horse and killed by lightning are all recorded. Multiple deaths are recorded in many churchyards. In March 1943 four occupants of a house were killed when a Wellington Bomber crashed on it – the bomber crew also died.
Slightly further afield at Kings Lynn is a memorial in the shape of a fishing boat which records the death of all eight crew members of a Scottish fishing vessel in 1875 and at Burwell there is a memorial to seventy eight people, more than half of them children, who burned to death in a barn at a puppet show in 1727.
The gravestones or memorials of famous people included those in Cambridge of Captain James Cook, explorer and Arthur Benson who wrote the words to Land of Hope and Glory along with Lancelot (Capability) Brown in Fenstanton and in Whittlesey, that of Lieutenant General Sir Harry Smith, Bt who fought in the Napoleonic Wars, India and South Africa.
March 2017 meeting. Mike Petty is a Cambridgeshire researcher, historian and lecturer who lives in Stretham on the A10, south of Ely. Once again, several visitors increased the audience to around 60 to hear Mike present reflections on people and places of the Ouse Washes. The area focuses on about 20 miles of the Old Bedford and New Bedford rivers from Swavesey/Over to Denver Sluice near Downham Market and Mike took us on a tour from south to north.
The numerous snippets of information included;
In the past the wash area between the rivers was widely used for osier production but today cattle graze most of it. In the early 1970's a hover train, which rose above its track on magnets, was tested on a stretch of track between Earith and Sutton Gault. It reached 107 mph in January 1973, well short of the intended 250 plus.
The WW2 airfield at Mepal was used as a missile base during the cold war and was on a high state of emergency alert at the time of the Cuba crisis. As the A142 crosses the washes at high level beside Mepal, the remnant of a former canal joining the two Bedford Rivers can be seen down to the west. In a farmyard outside The Three Pickerels are still the buildings used to store goods imported by barge through Kings Lynn, including a large former coal shed.
Just to the north is Fortrey’s Hall, a timber framed house, rebuilt in the 17th Century to create the fenland home of Samuel Fortrey who was one of the Adventurers to drain the fens. Fortrey's Hall featured in Anthony Trollope's last novel as Folking, John Caldigate's home. The Bedford Level Corporation levied tolls at frequent intervals along the washes, both on road traffic taking goods and passengers over the two rivers and on loaded barges crossing under them, taking goods to St Ives and beyond. This income paid for bank work.
The World Pea Shooting Championship has been held annually since 1971 in the village of Witcham. William Harrison, the Fenland Poet was born at Pymoor in November 1794. At Welch’s Dam there are several houses beside the river which look very pretty but in the early 1840's most of the residents of this tiny village died of cholera.
In the 1840's many people arrived from across the country to live in a kind of hippie commune, being a socialist utopian colony, on nearly 200 acres of land at Manea Fen. The scheme didn’t last long; financial backing was inadequate and it collapsed after two years. In the mid-
During the 19th and early 20th centuries a six mile length of the Old Bedford river north-
February 2017 meeting. The February meeting was attended by nearly 70, including several new members and yet more visitors. This large audience had come to hear Dr David Oates’ account of Chivers Jam Factory, 1873 to 1960. David’s father had been an engineer at the site. The Chivers family were farmers in Histon, growing mainly arable crops but they diversified into fruit during a period of poor crop returns. The railway line connecting Cambridge with St Ives and Huntingdon allowed them to send fruit both to London and to northern markets. On noticing that much of the fruit going north went to jam makers, in 1873 the family, headed by Stephen, made an experimental batch of jam in a barn at Histon and this was an immediate success. In the many photos shown of the various stages of jam production it was noticeable that vast numbers of staff, mostly young ladies, were employed in each department.
However, since jam making was seasonal work the company added other products to their list including marmalade which required oranges from Spain later in the season plus lemon curd, jellies, custard powder, soup powder in due course, mincemeat, Christmas puddings and Cambridge lemonade. This wide range of activity provided work for their staff all year round. Stone jars were used as containers initially but by 1885 they were also using glass jars. In 1907 the first British fruit canning factory was completed on the site. The company was self-